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Title: Image segmentation of Leaf Spot Diseases on Maize using multi-stage Cauchy-enabled grey wolf algorithm
Authors: Yu, Helong 
Song, Jiuman 
Chen, Chengcheng 
Heidari, Ali Asghar 
Liu, Jiawen 
Chen, Huiling 
Zaguia, Atef 
Mafarja, Majdi 
Keywords: Grey wolf optimizer;Mathematical optimization;Nature-inspired algorithms;Salp swarm algorithm;Nonlinear theories;Mathematical optimization;Global optimization;Multi-threshold image segmentation;Kapur’s entropy;Leaf Spot Diseases on Maize
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher: Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence
Abstract: Grey wolf optimizer (GWO) is a widespread metaphor-based algorithm based on the enhanced variants of velocity-free particle swarm optimizer with proven defects and shortcomings in performance. Regardless of the proven defect and lack of novelty in this algorithm, the GWO has a simple algorithm and it may face considerable unbalanced exploration and exploitation trends. However, GWO is easy to be utilized, and it has a low capacity to deal with multi-modal functions, and it quickly falls into the optima trap or fails to find the global optimal solution. To improve the shortcomings of the basic GWO, this paper proposes an improved GWO called multi-stage grey wolf optimizer (MGWO). By dividing the search process into three stages and using different population updating strategies at each stage, the MGWO's optimization ability is improved while maintaining a certain convergence speed. The MGWO cannot easily fall into premature convergence and has a better ability to get rid of the local optima trap than GWO. Meanwhile, the MGWO achieves a better balance of exploration and exploitation and has a rough balance curve. Hence, the proposed MGWO can obtain a higher-quality solution. Based on verification on the thirty benchmark functions of IEEE CEC2017 as the objective functions, the simulation experiments in which MGWO compared with some swarm based optimization algorithms and the balance and diversity analysis were conducted. The results verify the effectiveness and superiority of MGWO. Finally, the MGWO was applied to the multi-threshold image segmentation of Leaf Spot Diseases on Maize at four different threshold levels. The segmentation results were analyzed by comparing each comparative algorithm's PSNR, SSIM, and FSIM. The results proved that the MGWO has noticeable competitiveness, and it can be used as an effective optimizer for multi-threshold image segmentation.
DOI: 10.1016/j.engappai.2021.104653
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