Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11889/4511
Title: Sustainability of Natural and Mechanized Aerated Ponds for Domestic and Municipal Wastewater Treatment in Palestine
Authors: Al-Sa'ed, Rashed
Keywords: Refuse and refuse disposal - Environmental aspects - Palestine
Sewage - Purification - Biological treatment - Palestin
Sewage lagoons
Sanitation, Rural - Economic aspects - Palestine
Nutrient cycles
Issue Date: 22-Jun-2007
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group (formerly International Water Resources Association)
Citation: Water International 32(2), 2007: 310-324
Abstract: More than half of the current wastewater treatment facilities constructed in Palestine are waste stabilization ponds (WSP) and have several problems in their operation. This article evaluates three selected case studies on the various pond systems including WSP, algae- and duckweed-based ponds (ABP and DBP, respectively) and one mechanically aerated lagoon (AL) system. The effects of various design and operating parameters on the pond system' performance, with special emphasis on nitrogen removal, are discussed. The effluent quality of WSP and AL complies only with BOD limits, but not with microbiological limits prescribed for agricultural purposes, as determined by national standards. ABP and DBP achieved nitrogen removal only under high surface area demand (5-7 m2capita-1). Suitable plans for modifying existing aerated lagoons or for upgrading natural lagoons are suggested in order to comply with microbiological standards for effluent use in restricted irrigation. Finally, the suggested sustainability criteria for the evaluated pond systems may help the decision makers, as well as their designers and donor countries, to better select and design low-cost treatment options for sustainable wastewater management in developing countries.
URI: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02508060708692209
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11889/4511
Appears in Collections:Institute of Environmental and Water Studies

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