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dc.contributor.authorAl-Sa'ed, Rashed
dc.identifier.citationWater International 32(2), 2007: 310-324en_US
dc.description.abstractMore than half of the current wastewater treatment facilities constructed in Palestine are waste stabilization ponds (WSP) and have several problems in their operation. This article evaluates three selected case studies on the various pond systems including WSP, algae- and duckweed-based ponds (ABP and DBP, respectively) and one mechanically aerated lagoon (AL) system. The effects of various design and operating parameters on the pond system' performance, with special emphasis on nitrogen removal, are discussed. The effluent quality of WSP and AL complies only with BOD limits, but not with microbiological limits prescribed for agricultural purposes, as determined by national standards. ABP and DBP achieved nitrogen removal only under high surface area demand (5-7 m2capita-1). Suitable plans for modifying existing aerated lagoons or for upgrading natural lagoons are suggested in order to comply with microbiological standards for effluent use in restricted irrigation. Finally, the suggested sustainability criteria for the evaluated pond systems may help the decision makers, as well as their designers and donor countries, to better select and design low-cost treatment options for sustainable wastewater management in developing countries.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipResults are partially derived from WASCAPAL (Water Sector Capacity Building in Palestine) project supported by the Dutch Government through SAIL (Dutch Agency for International Cooperation), project reference SAIL-IOP/SPP.en_US
dc.publisherTaylor & Francis Group (formerly International Water Resources Association)en_US
dc.subjectRefuse and refuse disposal - Environmental aspects - Palestineen_US
dc.subjectSewage - Purification - Biological treatment - Palestinen_US
dc.subjectSewage lagoonsen_US
dc.subjectSanitation, Rural - Economic aspects - Palestineen_US
dc.subjectNutrient cyclesen_US
dc.titleSustainability of natural and mechanized aerated ponds for domestic and municipal wastewater treatment in Palestineen_US
newfileds.departmentInstitute of Environmental and Water Studiesen_US
newfileds.general-subjectEngineering and Technology | الهندسة والتكنولوجياen_US
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