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Title: Impact of spring water qualitative assessment on the environmental management system in the West Bank
Authors: Ghanem, Marwan 
Keywords: Spring water - West Bank - Palestine;Natuv catchment - West Bank - Palestine;Aquatic ecology - West Bank - Palestine;Hydrochemistry - West Bank - Palestine;Water quality - West Bank - Palestine;Pollution - West Bank - Palestine;Environmental information system - West Bank - Palestine
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Advances in Science, Technology and Innovation
Abstract: This study explores the use of water quality data for groundwater protection management. The urban related environmental expansion acts as pollution indicators for the spring water quality. Groundwater quality indicators were mapped and integrated with spatial information about the surrounding environment. It is one of the most important sensitive recharge areas to the Western Aquifer underlying the basin, putting more intensive efforts on spring-water environmental protection management. Groundwater quality indicators were mapped and integrated with spatial information about the surrounding environment for groundwater protection management. High quality freshwater resources are essential for economic growth, quality of life, and environmental sustainability. The quantity and quality of potable water varies over time and space, and is influenced by natural and man-made factors including climate, hydrogeology, management practices, and pollution. In the West Bank, the use of spring water for domestic purposes has increased in the last few decades because of a rapid increase in population, which is referred to as natural growth. The study area is the Natuv catchment, which is located to the west of the city of Ramallah. The springs are the natural outlets of the aquifer in the study area, due to the karstified nature of the limestone and dolomite outcroppings there. Most of the springs are distributed in the middle part of the study area and the flow discharge of these springs is greatly affected by the intensity of precipitation. Springs in the study area are an outcrop of perched aquifers. There are 130 springs located within the Natuv catchment. The wide distribution of cesspools and septic tanks with inadequate quality controls, graywater disposal into gardens and road ditches, and the uncontrolled disposal of untreated municipal sewage into valleys may cause rapid contamination of aquifer systems through karstic conduits in the area (Qannam 1997). There have been very few hydrochemical studies conducted in the study area, leaving environmental managers with little data to use in groundwater protection efforts. Therefore, a chemical and biological investigation is essential for the authorities to implement successful management plans. The main outcrop formations are Albian to Turonian age (SUSMAQ 2003) (Fig. 1). The groundwater is recharged mainly from precipitation falling on the mountains of middle of the West Bank from direct infiltration along the karstified outcrops in the mountainous and sloped areas in the eastern part of the aquifer system.
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-70548-4_218
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