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Title: Gender differences in the price elasticity of demand for waterpipe and cigarette smoking in Lebanon, Jordan and Palestine: a volumetric choice experiment
Authors: Awawda, Sameera 
Chalak, Ali 
Khader, Yousef 
Mostafa, Aya 
Abla, Ruba 
Jawad, Mohammed 
Salloum, Ramzi G. 
Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.E. 
Keywords: Women - Tobacco use - Palestine;Cigarettes - Prices - Gender differences - Palestine;Men - Tobacco use - Palestine - Jordan - Lebanon;Youth - Tobacco use - Palestine - Jordan - Lebanon;Cigarettes - Prices - Gender differences - Lebanon;Cigarettes - Prices - Gender differences - Jordan;Women - Tobacco use - Lebanon;Women - Tobacco use - Jordan;Men - Tobacco use - Jordan;Men - Tobacco use - Lebanon
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher: BMJ Open
Abstract: Objectives: This study assessed the extent to which the elasticity of cigarette and waterpipe tobacco products differs between men and women. We also explored the levels of substitution and complementarity in tobacco products among men and women. Setting The study examines tobacco elasticities in three Arab countries: Lebanon, Jordan and the West Bank of Palestine. Participants We used data from nationally representative surveys of adults aged ≥18 years in Lebanon (n=1680), Jordan (n=1925) and Palestine (n=1679). The proportion of women was 50.0% of the sample in Lebanon and Palestine, and 44.6% in Jordan. Primary and secondary outcome measures A zero inflated Poisson regression model estimated own-price and cross-price elasticities for two variations of cigarettes and five variations of waterpipe tobacco products. Elasticities were measured based on eight scenarios of prices. Results Demand for waterpipe tobacco products was elastic for both men and women. The cross-price elasticities in the three countries indicate the existence of substitution between cigarettes and waterpipe products and by different varieties within each of the two tobacco products. Gender differences varied across the three countries whereby higher cross-price elasticities were observed for women in Jordan and Palestine. For example, the price elasticity for discount waterpipe was −1.4 and−0.6 for women and men in Jordan, respectively. Conclusions Results on the elasticity of demand for tobacco products and the existence of substitution between tobacco products reveal the higher responsiveness of men and women to changes in tobacco prices. This should be taken into consideration in tobacco control strategies particularly when reducing tobacco consumption via taxation policies.
DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-058495
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