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Title: Groundwater quality of drinking water wells in the West Bank, Palestine
Authors: Mahmoud, Nidal 
Zayed, Omar 
Petrusevski, Branislav 
Keywords: Groundwater - Quality - West Bank - Palestine;Aquifers - Quality - West Bank - Palestine;Drinking water - Quality - West Bank - Palestine
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher: Water (Switzerland)
Abstract: Groundwater, the main drinking water source in the West Bank, is highly vulnerable to pollution given the karstic nature of the aquifer. This study was aimed at screening the quality of groundwater used for water supply, in terms of physicochemical and microbiological properties, and heavy metals concentrations. Attention was given to groundwater chemistry, using piper and Durov diagrams, to assess potent impact of pollution on groundwater. Twenty-nine groundwater samples from selected wells, representing the different groundwater fields in the West Bank, were collected and analyzed. The results revealed that the concentration of the ions and parameters affecting the aesthetic and health related water quality, such as Cl􀀀, Na+, NH4 + , TDS, and NO3􀀀, and selected (semi) metals, including Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, and As, are within the limits recommended for drinking water. The dominant cations and anions were in the order of Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ > NH4 + and HCO3􀀀 > Cl􀀀 > NO3􀀀 > SO42􀀀, respectively. The total average groundwater hardness is approximately 2.1 mmol/L and can be attributed to calcium (approximately 60%) and magnesium. The major ground water types in the West Bank were fresh water (Ca-Mg-HCO3), fresh water mixed with another water type (Ca-Mg-Na-HCO3 or Ca-Mg-HCO3-Cl), and extreme water type (Na-Ca-Mg- HCO3-Cl or Na-Ca-HCO3-Cl) showing high TDS, Cl􀀀 and Na+. Signs of pollution, namely elevated levels of nitrate and ammonium, were, however, observed even in some deep wells (>600 m), despite the thick cover of soil, tapping the Lower Cenomanian confined aquifer.
DOI: 10.3390/w14030377
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