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Title: Implementing evidence-based practices for acute stroke care in low- and middle-income countries
Authors: Khatib, Rasha 
Jawaada, Assef M. 
Arevalo, Yurany A. 
Hamed, Hiba K. 
Mohammed, Sukayna H. 
Huffman, Mark D. 
Keywords: Cerebrovascular disease - Health care - Developing countries;Cerebrovascular disease - Treatment - Developing countries;Acute stroke - Management - Developing countries;Barriers;Evidence-based practice
Issue Date: 2017
Abstract: Purpose of Review Most strokes occur in low- and middle income countries where resources to manage patients are limited. We explore the resources required to providing optimal acute stroke care and review barriers to implementing evidence-based stroke care in settings with limited resources using the World Stroke Organization’s Global Stroke Services Action Plan framework. Recent Findings Major advances have been made during the past few decades in stroke prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. These advances have been translated into practice in many high-income countries, but their uptake remains suboptimal in low- and middle-income countries. Summary The review highlights the resources required to providing optimal acute stroke care in settings with limited resources. These resource levels were divided into minimal, essential, and advanced resources depending on the availability of stroke expertise, diagnostics, and facilities. Resources were described for the three stages of acute care: early diagnosis and management, acute management and prevention of complications, and early discharge and rehabilitation. Barriers to providing acute care at each of these stages in low- and middle-income countries are reviewed, explaining that some barriers persist in essential or advanced settings where some aspects of organized stroke units are available.
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