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Title: Roughness-induced vehicle energy dissipation from crowdsourced smartphone measurements through random vibration theory
Authors: Botshekan, Meshkat 
Roxon, Jacob 
Wanichkul, Athikom 
Chirananthavat, Theemathas 
Chamoun, Joy 
Ziq, Malik 
Anini, Bader 
Daher, Naseem 
Awad, Abdalkarim 
Ghanem, Wasel 
Tootkabon, Mazdak 
Louhghalam, Arghavan 
Ulm, Franz-Josef 
Keywords: International Roughness Index;Inverse analysis;Random Vibration Theory;Roads;Pavements - Measurement;Surface roughness;Roughness-induced pavement–vehicle interaction;Smartphone signal analysis
Issue Date: Dec-2020
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Journal: Data-Centric Engineering (2020), 1: e16 
Abstract: We propose, calibrate, and validate a crowdsourced approach for estimating power spectral density (PSD) of road roughness based on an inverse analysis of vertical acceleration measured by a smartphone mounted in an unknown position in a vehicle. Built upon random vibration analysis of a half-car mechanistic model of roughness-induced pavement–vehicle interaction, the inverse analysis employs an L2 norm regularization to estimate ride quality metrics, such as the widely used International Roughness Index, from the acceleration PSD. Evoking the fluctuation– dissipation theorem of statistical physics, the inverse framework estimates the half-car dynamic vehicle properties and related excess fuel consumption. The method is validated against (a) laser-measured road roughness data for both inner city and highway road conditions and (b) road roughness data for the state of California.We also show that the phone position in the vehicle only marginally affects road roughness predictions, an important condition for crowdsourced capabilities of the proposed approach.
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