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Title: Incentive systems for the use of reclaimed wastewater in irrigated agriculture in Jordan and Tunisia.
Authors: Abu-Madi, Maher
Braadbaart, Okke
Al-Sa'ed, Rashed
Alaerts, Guy
Keywords: Water reuse - Tunisia;Water reuse - Jordan;Sewage irrigation - Tunisia;Sewage irrigation - Jordan;Effluent quality - Tunisia;Effluent quality - Jordan
Issue Date: 30-May-2004
Source: Abu-Madi, M., Braadbaart, O., Al-Sa’ed, R., and Alaerts, G., 2004. Incentive systems for the use of reclaimed wastewater in irrigated agriculture in Jordan and Tunisia. Proceedings of the Int. Water Demand Management Conference. 30 May-3 June, 2004. Dead Sea, Amman, Jordan
Abstract: This paper analyzes and assesses the potential factors that promote or discourage the use of reclaimed wastewater in irrigated agriculture in Jordan and Tunisia as representative of the Middle East and North Africa region. To help understanding the underlying fundamental driving forces for wastewater reuse, a number of selected irrigation schemes were surveyed and methodological interviews with stakeholders were conducted as part of the fieldwork in Jordan and Tunisia. The selected stakeholders in each of the two countries represented governmental administrators, operational staff, farmers, and common public at household level. The regulatory, financial, and socio-cultural (dis)incentives were shown in the field surveys to be of great relevance in the shaping of the decisions of both the farmers – who have to buy the reclaimed water and apply certain agronomic approaches – and the public – that must decide whether to buy the crops watered with reclaimed wastewater. The most prominent factors are: (i) finding reliable users for reclaimed wastewater, (ii) awareness to change the attitudes of farmers and public, (iii) storage and reliability of supplies, (iv) farmers’ accessibility to freshwater, (v) stringent quality standards and regulations, (vi) farmers’ involvement, (vii) coordination and cooperation between the various institutions, (viii) the wastewater treatment approach with the discharge objective, and (ix) pricing of freshwater and reclaimed wastewater.
Description: Proceedings of the International Water Demand Management Conference May 30th-June 3rd, 2004, Jordan
Appears in Collections:Institute of Environmental and Water Studies

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