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Title: Association of sitting time with mortality and cardiovascular events in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries
Authors: Li, Sidong 
Lear, Scott A. 
Rangarajan, Sumathy 
Hu, Bo 
Yin, Lu 
Bangdiwala, Shrikant I. 
Alhabib, Khalid F. 
Rosengren, Annika 
Gupta, Rajeev 
Mony, Prem K. 
Wielgosz, Andreas 
Rahman, Omar 
Mazapuspavina, M. Y. 
Avezum, Alvaro 
Oguz, Aytekin 
Yeates, Karen 
Lanas, Fernando 
Dans, Antonio 
Abat, Marc Evans M. 
Yusufali, Afzalhussein 
Diaz, Rafael 
Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio 
Leach, Lloyd 
Lakshmi, P. V. M. 
Basiak-Rasała, Alicja 
Iqbal, Romaina 
Kelishadi, Roya 
Chifamba, Jephat 
Khatib, Rasha 
Li, Wei 
Yusuf, Salim 
Keywords: Cardiovascular system - Diseases - Mortality
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher: JAMA Cardiology
Abstract: IMPORTANCE High amounts of sitting time are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in high-income countries, but it is unknown whether risks also increase in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of sitting time with mortality and major CVD in countries at different economic levels using data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This population-based cohort study included participants aged 35 to 70 years recruited from January 1, 2003, and followed up until August 31, 2021, in 21 high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries with a median follow-up of 11.1 years. EXPOSURES Daily sitting time measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The composite of all-cause mortality and major CVD (defined as cardiovascular death,myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure). RESULTS Of 105 677 participants, 61 925 (58.6%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 50.4 (9.6) years. During a median follow-up of 11.1 (IQR, 8.6-12.2) years, 6233 deaths and 5696 major cardiovascular events (2349myocardial infarctions, 2966 strokes, 671 heart failure, and 1792 cardiovascular deaths) were documented. Compared with the reference group (<4 hours per day of sitting), higher sitting time ( 8 hours per day) was associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (hazard ratio [HR], 1.19; 95%CI, 1.11-1.28; P for trend < .001), all-cause mortality (HR, 1.20; 95%CI, 1.10-1.31; P for trend < .001), and major CVD (HR, 1.21; 95%CI, 1.10-1.34; P for trend < .001). When stratified by country income levels, the association of sitting time with the composite outcome was stronger in low-income and lower-middle–income countries ( 8 hours per day: HR, 1.29; 95%CI, 1.16-1.44) compared with high-income and upper-middle–income countries (HR, 1.08; 95%CI, 0.98-1.19; P for interaction = .02). Compared with those who reported sitting time less than 4 hours per day and high physical activity level, participants who sat for 8 or more hours per day experienced a 17%to 50% higher associated risk of the composite outcome across physical activity levels; and the risk was attenuated along with increased physical activity levels.
DOI: 10.1001/jamacardio.2022.1581
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