Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11889/5244
Title: A synergistic view of man and universe a psycho-social model of man as an open system
Authors: Nasru, Fathiyyeh Said
Keywords: Conduct of life
Ethics
Psychoanalysis
Issue Date: 1980
Abstract: In the history of civilization, there have appeared various ideas about the nature of man, some of which are so persistent as to be considered "models." Any model of man is a form of analogy that is based on a particular logic, and particular view of man and universe.. A model carries within its theoretical constructs assumptions, broad concepts, definitions, goals and tools by which these assumptions could be tested, and by the results of which the concepts and definitions could be articulated. A model of man is to be considered a form of "scientific paradigm" which guides "normal scientists" in their investigations.1 A particular model of man becomes a paradigm when beliefs and assumptions associated with it gain strength from a scientific community, which accepts the conceptual system of the model as a shared theoretical framework for regular scientific practices. In that sense one can accept Kuhn's (19.70) notion that a paradigm is a model, but not every model is a paradigm. Many researchers have attempted to classify psychological theories into categories of models of man. Among these researchers, Allport (1973) classified psychological theories into two categories, although he sub-mitted that this classification is an oversimplification. The two categories Allport identifies are: (1) the Lockean tradition, and (2) the Leibnitzian tradition. Allport has associated these two traditions with two divergent models of man. The first tradition (the Lockean) represents a model of man as a passive recipient of events, and the second tradition (the Leibnitzian) represents man as an active participant in events In the Lockean view, man's mind is essentially passive. Evidence for this is Locke's statement that mind is a tabula rata at birth. Man is seen as a responding organism that constantly reacts to external stimuli. Accordingly, man's motivation is extrinsic and has a deficit nature, represented by the necessity for seeking tension-reduction. The activity of man as an organism is purposeful and lawful. It aims at maintaining equilibrium of its needs with the external conditions. Followers of this tradition, according to Aliport, are the behaviorists, the associationists and the advocates of animal, experimental and genetic psychology. They are all psychologists who study the nature of man by applying the scientific method and using quantitative descriptive terms to report their findings.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11889/5244
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