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dc.contributor.authorZimmo, Omar-
dc.contributor.authorPetta, Gigi-
dc.contributor.authorMahmoud, Nidal-
dc.contributor.authorAl-Sa'ed, Rashed-
dc.contributor.authorMimi, Ziad-
dc.contributor.authorAbu Madi, Maher-
dc.identifier.citation2005). In: Efficient Management of Wastewater, its Treatment and Reuse in the Mediterranean Countries. I. Al Baz, R. Otterpohl, C. Wendland (Eds.).en_US
dc.description.abstractPoint and non-point source pollution of scarce water resources is of great concern worldwide. Lack of pollution control in general and nitrogen emission control in particular (especially by untreated or poorly treated wastewater) might aggravate the availability of scarce water resources, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Water is a scarce and precious resource in the Middle East. Palestine is a typical example in which scarce water resources are massively contaminated by nonpoint sources such as the excessive use of both fertilizer and manure in agriculture and by uncontrolled discharge of municipal sewage into the environment. Such practices have compromised several water sources so far and might seriously endanger future potable water supplies of the population at large. Nitrate concentrations exceeding 100 mg NO3/l are reported for most of the deep wells (50-150 m) used for potable supplies; signs of nitrate pollution in some agricultural wells and freshwater springs in the West Bank were also reported. Due to water scarcity, the reuse of reclaimed wastewater has been taking an increasing interest throughout the Middle East. The reuse of reclaimed wastewater in Palestine is a major priority, as confirmed by the Palestinian Water Policy recently adopted by the PWA (Palestinian Water Authority) and the Ministry of Agriculture. Up to now, the agriculture sector makes up about 70 % of the total water consumption in Palestine, and it represents by far the largest water consumer (as elsewhere in the region). Other water uses include domestic (27 %) and industrial (3 %) sectors. Therefore, agricultural reuse of treated effluents is indeed a topic of great concern in Palestine. Some applications have been realized so far (i.e. Jabaliah and Gaza City) but such implementation failed due to the lack of funds and to the rejection by local farmers. Cultural acceptance by public opinion seems to be one of the main problems associated with the expansion of wastewater reuse in agriculture. In any case, such practice may become realistic only when effective treatment systems are realized and irrigation standards for treated effluents are accomplished. Thus, socio-cultural and technical obstacles have to overcome in order to promote reclaimed wastewater reuse for agriculture purposes. Now, in spite of the high potential of this practice, the lack of a national strategy and guidelines makes rejection of reuse most likely. It will be important to emphasize the vitality of water reuse for the Palestinian water sector since recycling the wastewater would lower the burden and pressure on the water resources. This challenge represents the framework in which the EMWater-Project “Efficient Management of Wastewater, its Treatment and Reuse in the Mediterranean Countries” is introduced. Its main goal is to create public awareness about innovative solutions in wastewater treatment and its reuse and to support the installation of new technologies of wastewater management in the targeted countries (Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine and Turkey).en_US
dc.publisherSpringer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germanyen_US
dc.subjectWater - Pollution - Prevention and control - Palestine - Case studiesen_US
dc.subjectSewage - Purification - Palestine - Case studiesen_US
dc.subjectSewage - Purification - Environmental aspects - Palestine - Case studiesen_US
dc.subjectSewage - Purification - Economic aspects - Palestine - Case studiesen_US
dc.subjectWater reuse - Palestine - Case studiesen_US
dc.titleProspects of efficient wastewater management and water reuse in Palestine : country studyen_US
dc.typeBook chapteren_US
newfileds.departmentInstitute of Environmental and Water Studiesen_US
newfileds.general-subjectEngineering and Technology | الهندسة والتكنولوجياen_US
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