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dc.contributor.authorAl-Sa'ed, Rashed-
dc.contributor.authorMubarak, Sana'-
dc.identifier.citationManage. Environ. Quality: An Int. J. 17(2), 140-156.en_US
dc.description.abstractPurpose – This paper seeks to evaluate the present onsite sanitation systems in Palestinian rural areas in Ramallah‐Albireh district with special emphasis on technical, socio‐cultural and financial aspects. Design/methodology/approach – A specialized questionnaire was developed and distributed to 200 households in four randomly selected villages with less than 5,000 persons and having onsite sanitation facilities. WAWTTAR software package was used to evaluate 16 different treatment systems and to select a sustainable onsite treatment system for these rural areas based on technical, environmental, financial and socio‐cultural considerations. Findings – Major findings indicated that most of the respondents were in favor of using treated grey wastewater and equally rejected the use of mixed treated effluent for agricultural irrigation. More than 50 percent of the respondents were against having new onsite treatment systems and favored centralized wastewater treatment options, as only 18 percent showed willingness to participate partially in construction costs. The WAWTTAR data analysis on feasible onsite treatment alternatives revealed that the septic tank‐subsurface wetland system offers a higher level of sustainability to rural communities in Ramallah‐Albireh district. Finally, the social and economical aspects have an equal status in technical and financial issues. Practical implications – The results obtained can be utilized by local and international experts seeking a carrier in the planning and design of sustainable sanitation facilities in developing countries or for those who have newly filled a post in governmental, non‐governmental or academic institutions. Originality/value – This paper highlights adequate tools for the selection of sustainable onsite sanitation systems in Palestinian rural communities. Methodology and dissemination of the obtained results can be applied to other rural communities in developing countries.en_US
dc.publisherEmerald Insighten_US
dc.subjectWater quality biological assessment - Palestineen_US
dc.subjectSustainable development - Palestineen_US
dc.subjectRefuse and refuse disposal - Palestineen_US
dc.titleSustainability assessment of onsite sanitation facilities in Ramallah-Albireh district with emphasis on technical, socio-cultural and financial aspectsen_US
newfileds.departmentInstitute of Environmental and Water Studiesen_US
newfileds.general-subjectEngineering and Technology | الهندسة والتكنولوجياen_US
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