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Title: Nabataean bronze coins from Palestine
Authors: Halayqa, Issam 
Keywords: Coins, Nabataean - Palestine;Bronze coins, Nabataean - Palestine;Coins, Ancient - Palestine;Numismatics, Nabataean - Palestine
Issue Date: 2020
Abstract: Nabataeans succeed in creating a state during the Hellenistic period. As a political entity, they expressed themselves in the erection of monumental buildings, monumental inscriptions, pottery, and in the autonomous minting of coins. The importance of the Nabataean coins is that the data about the chronology of the Nabataean kings is entirely based on the information derived from these coins. The exact date of the beginning of the Nabataean coinage is still disputed among scholars. Kushnir-Stein and Gilter 1992– 93:13–20 based on the archeological finds from Tell Beer Es-sabaʽ and Marisa consider the earliest Nabataean group of coins (cf. Meshorer – Bijovsky et al 2013, pl. 183 No. 1) to refer to Aretas II (153/4–104 B.C.). This group of coins imitate Alexandrine gold coins and bear only one Greek letter A as an inscription (an abbreviation for Aretas) (Meshorer 1975:9–12). Schmitt-Korte 1990:125–126, prefers longer chronology for these coins from the reign of Aretas II, through Obadas I (96–84 B.C.) to Aretas III (84–62 B.C.), and even later to the early years of Aretas IV.1 The coins of Aretas III (84–62 B.C.) (e.g. Pl. 1 Nos. 5–8 in Meshorer 1975’s monograph) which are made exactly like the Seleucid coins minted in Damascus were regarded as the earliest Nabataean2 coins. They have no clearly Nabataean characters unlike the Nabataean coins struck from the days of Obadas II onwards (Meshorer 1975:9, 10).The distinctive local Nababtaean coinage with native Nabataean characters had begun with silver coin issues of Obadas II (62–60 B.C.) (see Pl. 183 No. 9 in Meshorer – Bijovsky et al 2013). From Obadas II onward, plenty of silver and bronze coins were struck by Nabataean kings. On these issues, the portrait of the king normally appears on the obverse, but under Obadas III (30–39 B.C.; Pl. 183–184 Nos. 14–27 in Meshorer – Bijovsky et al 2013) and later kings, the portrait of royal wives and mothers are also included; the silver coins usually bear regnal dates
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