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Title: The tribal kings in pre-islamic Arabia
Authors: ‛Athamina, Khalil 
Keywords: Arabian Peninsula—History;Tribes;Kings and rulers—Arabian Peninsula—History
Issue Date: 2019
Abstract: This article deals with the issue of tribal kings in pre-Islamic Arabia. These kings, muluk in Arabic, were no more than tribal leaders who bore the title, malik, and placed crowns on their heads. Some of them had derived power from the Sassanid emperor who used to grant them crowns. Their scope of authority was mainly local, limited to the specific territory of their own tribes, or in some cases, was extended to include other territories by means of a federation of tribes. Supported by a garrison of horsemen from the Persian army they could impose their power over the population and territory as well. Their dominion took the form of an annual tribute extracted from the inhabitants under their control. They also acquired control over the seasonal markets held in their area, and the trade routes as well. In return, the tribal king was responsible for his tribesmen's lives and the security of their property
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