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Title: Novel design concept for facultative ponds using rock filters to reclaim the effluent
Authors: Al-Sàed, Rashed 
Abu-Madi, Maher 
Zimmo, Omar 
Keywords: Domestic wastewater;Effluent reclamation;Sewage disposal;Algae-rock filter;Algae-biofilm;Nitrification;Removal efficacy;Waste stabilization ponds;On-site wastewater treatment;Water purification;Water reuse;Land treatment of wastewater
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: Journal of Environmental Engineering
Abstract: This paper presents a novel design concept for using rock filters as in-line natural media in waste stabilization ponds. A pilot-scale algae-rock-filter pond (ARP) system was investigated in parallel with algae-based ponds (ABPs) over a period of 6 months to evaluate the treatment efficacy of both systems. Each system entailed four equally sized ponds in a series and was continuously fed with domestic wastewater from Birzeit University. The removal rates of organic matter, nutrients, and fecal coliforms were monitored within each treatment system. The results obtained revealed that the ARP system was more efficient in the removal of organic matter [total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), 86% and 84%, respectively] and fecal coliforms (4 log) than the ABP system (81%, 81%, 3 log, respectively). The ARPs showed higher removal rates for ammonium and phosphorus (68.8% and 50.0%, respectively) compared with the ABPs (57.9% and 41.5%, respectively). The biogenic-aerated ARP option is a cost-effective and land-saving alternative with effluent quality suitable for restricted agricultural irrigation. The ARPs utilizing a new algae-biofilm design concept should be investigated at a large scale to enhance the information available to relevant decision makers, who are seeking sustainable on-site wastewater treatment alternatives.
DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000318
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