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Title: Sewage characterisation as a tool for the application of anaerobic treatment in Palestine
Authors: Mahmoud, Nidal 
Amarneh, Mohammad Naser 
Al-Sa'ed, Rashed 
Zeeman, Grietje 
Gijzen, Huub 
Lettinga, Gatze 
Keywords: Wastewater management - Palestine;Sewage - Purification - Anaerobic treatment - Palestine;Sewage disposal plants - Palestine;Sewage characteristics;UASB-septic tank
Issue Date: 2003
Publisher: Environmental Pollution
Abstract: Adequate knowledge on sewage characteristics is a prerequisite for selection and sizing of anaerobic treatment technologies, i.e. Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems. Composite sewage samples were collected from three locations in Ramallah/ Al-Bireh district and analysed for several chemical and physical parameters, including samples fractionation into soluble, colloidal and suspended. The results revealed that the sewage in the study area is of very high strength. This is attributed to low water consumption, industrial discharges and people’s habits resulting in a high specific COD production [gCOD per capita per day (gCOD/ c.d)]. Simple model calculations revealed that the process conditions in a one stage UASB reactor should be modified to overcome the sewage high solids content and low temperature during wintertime.
DOI: 10.1016/S0269-7491(03)00147-7
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