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Title: Design and control of battery charger for electric vehicles using modular multilevel converters
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Authors: Quraan, Mahran 
Abu‐Khaizaran, Muhammad 
Sa'ed, Jaser 
Hashlamoun, Wael 
Tricoli, Pietro 
Keywords: Battery charger (Electric vehicles) - Construction and design;Battery charging stations (Electric vehicles);Modular Multi level Inverter
Issue Date: Dec-2020
Publisher: IET Power Electronics. 2020
Source: Quraan, M, Abu‐Khaizaran, M, Sa'ed, J, Hashlamoun, W, Tricoli, P. Design and control of battery charger for electric vehicles using modular multilevel converters. IET Power Electronics. 2020; 1– 18.
Journal: IET Power Electronics. 2020 
Abstract: Double-star modular multilevel converters with embedded battery cells are a ground breaking technology for the power converter of electric vehicles. In this topology, the battery cells are connected in series via half bridge DC–DC buck converter and can be independently discharged and recharged. This paper proposes a novel control system for this converter topology that can charge the battery cells from the grid at unity power factor and instantaneously balance them in terms of their state of charges without affecting the grid voltages and currents. The grid current controller is designed and implemented in the stationary reference frame using a proportional-resonant controller, while the state of charge balancing algorithm is designed using sorting algorithm and circulating current control. The simulation and experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed control strategy can effectively charge the battery cells with a negligible distortion of the grid current and can ensure the balance of cells during the recharge without affecting the grid current.
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