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Title: Investigation of the Chemical Content of Two Specific Streams in Municipal Waste: The Case of Hazardous Household Waste and Dental Waste.
Authors: Kontogianni, Stamatia
Moussiopoulos, N.
Khatib, Issam
Keywords: Chemical compounds · Risk level · Uncertainty · Scenarios;Refuse and refuse disposal - Management - Palestine;Hazardous wastes - Management - Palestine;Dental Waste - Management - Palestine;Chemical industry - Waste disposal - Palestine;Hazardous wastes - Palestine - Safety measures
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Springer
Source: Kontogianni S., Moussiopoulos N., Al-Khatib I.A. (2018) Investigation of the Chemical Content of Two Specific Streams in Municipal Waste: The Case of Hazardous Household Waste and Dental Waste. In: Hussain C. (eds) Handbook of Environmental Materials Management. Springer, Cham. DOI: Online ISBN: 978-3-319-58538-3.
Abstract: A variety of chemicals is included in the household hazardous waste and the dental waste fractions that are sadly both parts of municipal solid waste in Greece. These chemical compounds have hazardous properties according to international and European regulations. In Greece, the categorization of household hazardous waste is not indicated by any legislation, whereas for dental waste the legislation is existent since May 2012, but the development of a management plan undertaken by the Hellenic Dental Association is not yet active. Given that both waste fractions are managed with other municipal solid wastes, they are spotted in solid waste management facilities causing multiple impacts and challenging the labors’ health and safety status. Desk research involving literature and commercial research was conducted in order for the hazardous substances of each of the aforementioned waste stream to be pinpointed; collected data were compiled into databases for those two specific waste streams and were categorized based on their hazardous properties and the waste facility they are most likely to be found in. Parallel field researches were conducted to: (i) determine the uncertainty level of the fractions, composition, and health/environmental impacts, and (ii) specific parameters were introduced to determine their impact due to the status of health and safety conditions within the management facilities in Greece. Despite the fact that HHW is almost 10% of the total MSW, it was found that 4.00% of their compounds involve a toxic risk and 7.16% of them involve combination risks for humans working in treatment facilities; ten chemical compounds, which are included in this fraction, are categorized as R39/23/24/25 (toxic). On the other hand, in DW, 8.82% of the included chemical compounds involve a toxic risk and 11.76% of them involve combination risks for humans. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of those waste fractions presented in this paper will pave the way toward organization of both waste streams’ management plan followed by compiled strategies and recommendations to divert them from the municipal waste stream and lead them to safe and sustainable management paths.
ISBN: 978-3-319-58538-3
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