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Title: Alternative diesel fuel : microemulsion phase behavior and combustion properties
Authors: Karaeen, Mohammad
Kayali, Ibrahim
Olsson, Ulf
Keywords: Fuel switching;Diesel motor - Combustion;Diesel motor - Combustion - Environmental aspects
Issue Date: 2015
Abstract: The phase behavior of water, diesel, limonene and ethanol was investigated at ambient temperature using single nonionic alkyl poly glycol ethers (C14E3). Visual inspection as well as cross polarizers was used to detect transparency and anisotropy. Ternary phase diagrams were determined. Combustion experiments using a 4-cylinder diesel engine were carried out. Isotropic water in diesel microemulsion region (L2) and anisotropic liquid crystalline region (LC) were found with all combinations. Increasing the ratio of limonene to diesel reduced the microemulsion region while the presence of ethanol increased it on the expense of the LC region. Combustion tests performed on a selected formulation from the ternary phase diagram of water, diesel, ethanol and C14E3 revealed substantial reduction of soot, NOx and CO2 emissions compared to neat diesel.
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