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Title: Seasonal and spatial variation in the monitoring parameters of Zomar stream, Palestine during 2010
Authors: Sulaiman, Saleh
Scrano, Laura
Bufo, Sabino
Karaman, Rafik
Keywords: Sewage - Analysis;Sewage - Microbiology - Palestine - Wadi Zomer;Stream self-purification - Palestine - Wadi Zomer;Biochemical oxygen demand - Palestine - Wadi Zomer
Issue Date: 2010
Abstract: Levels of pollutants at Zomar stream, the only recreational area for the inhabitants of the northern part of the West Bank, Palestine, were recently determined, and have shown to be relatively high. Three bathing sites along the Zomar stream area were monitored for one year (fortnightly). Wastewater samples were subjected to microbiological analysis (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus and Klebsiella), and physico-chemical analyses (water temperature, pH, electroconductivity and DO (dissolved oxygen)), biochemical oxygen demand, total Kjeldahl nitrogen and ammonia. The study results demonstrated seasonal and locational variations in all parameters studied. The highest levels of pollution were detected during summer, especially before a rainfall or after a discharge from onsite cesspits. Locations associated with sewage discharge were found to have the highest fecal indicator levels.
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